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For Async v1.5.x documentation, go HERE

Async is a utility module which provides straight-forward, powerful functions for working with asynchronous JavaScript. Although originally designed for use with Node.js and installable via npm i async, it can also be used directly in the browser.

Async is also installable via:

  • yarn: yarn add async

Async provides around 70 functions that include the usual 'functional' suspects (map, reduce, filter, each…) as well as some common patterns for asynchronous control flow (parallel, series, waterfall…). All these functions assume you follow the Node.js convention of providing a single callback as the last argument of your asynchronous function -- a callback which expects an Error as its first argument -- and calling the callback once.

You can also pass async functions to Async methods, instead of callback-accepting functions. For more information, see AsyncFunction

Quick Examples['file1','file2','file3'], fs.stat, function(err, results) {
    // results is now an array of stats for each file

async.filter(['file1','file2','file3'], function(filePath, callback) {
  fs.access(filePath, function(err) {
    callback(null, !err)
}, function(err, results) {
    // results now equals an array of the existing files

    function(callback) { ... },
    function(callback) { ... }
], function(err, results) {
    // optional callback

    function(callback) { ... },
    function(callback) { ... }

There are many more functions available so take a look at the docs below for a full list. This module aims to be comprehensive, so if you feel anything is missing please create a GitHub issue for it.

Common Pitfalls (StackOverflow)

Synchronous iteration functions

If you get an error like RangeError: Maximum call stack size exceeded. or other stack overflow issues when using async, you are likely using a synchronous iteratee. By synchronous we mean a function that calls its callback on the same tick in the javascript event loop, without doing any I/O or using any timers. Calling many callbacks iteratively will quickly overflow the stack. If you run into this issue, just defer your callback with async.setImmediate to start a new call stack on the next tick of the event loop.

This can also arise by accident if you callback early in certain cases:

async.eachSeries(hugeArray, function iteratee(item, callback) {
    if (inCache(item)) {
        callback(null, cache[item]); // if many items are cached, you'll overflow
    } else {
        doSomeIO(item, callback);
}, function done() {

Just change it to:

async.eachSeries(hugeArray, function iteratee(item, callback) {
    if (inCache(item)) {
        async.setImmediate(function() {
            callback(null, cache[item]);
    } else {
        doSomeIO(item, callback);

Async does not guard against synchronous iteratees for performance reasons. If you are still running into stack overflows, you can defer as suggested above, or wrap functions with async.ensureAsync Functions that are asynchronous by their nature do not have this problem and don't need the extra callback deferral.

If JavaScript's event loop is still a bit nebulous, check out this article or this talk for more detailed information about how it works.

Multiple callbacks

Make sure to always return when calling a callback early, otherwise you will cause multiple callbacks and unpredictable behavior in many cases.

    function(callback) {
        getSomething(options, function (err, result) {
            if (err) {
                callback(new Error("failed getting something:" + err.message));
                // we should return here
            // since we did not return, this callback still will be called and
            // `processData` will be called twice
            callback(null, result);
], done)

It is always good practice to return callback(err, result) whenever a callback call is not the last statement of a function.

Using ES2017 async functions

Async accepts async functions wherever we accept a Node-style callback function. However, we do not pass them a callback, and instead use the return value and handle any promise rejections or errors thrown.

async.mapLimit(files, 10, async file => { // <- no callback!
    const text = await util.promisify(fs.readFile)(dir + file, 'utf8')
    const body = JSON.parse(text) // <- a parse error here will be caught automatically
    if (!(await checkValidity(body))) {
        throw new Error(`${file} has invalid contents`) // <- this error will also be caught
    return body // <- return a value!
}, (err, contents) => {
    if (err) throw err

We can only detect native async functions, not transpiled versions (e.g. with Babel). Otherwise, you can wrap async functions in async.asyncify().

Binding a context to an iteratee

This section is really about bind, not about Async. If you are wondering how to make Async execute your iteratees in a given context, or are confused as to why a method of another library isn't working as an iteratee, study this example:

// Here is a simple object with an (unnecessarily roundabout) squaring method
var AsyncSquaringLibrary = {
    squareExponent: 2,
    square: function(number, callback){
        var result = Math.pow(number, this.squareExponent);
            callback(null, result);
        }, 200);
};[1, 2, 3], AsyncSquaringLibrary.square, function(err, result) {
    // result is [NaN, NaN, NaN]
    // This fails because the `this.squareExponent` expression in the square
    // function is not evaluated in the context of AsyncSquaringLibrary, and is
    // therefore undefined.
});[1, 2, 3], AsyncSquaringLibrary.square.bind(AsyncSquaringLibrary), function(err, result) {
    // result is [1, 4, 9]
    // With the help of bind we can attach a context to the iteratee before
    // passing it to Async. Now the square function will be executed in its
    // 'home' AsyncSquaringLibrary context and the value of `this.squareExponent`
    // will be as expected.

Subtle Memory Leaks

There are cases where you might want to exit early from async flow, when calling an Async method inside another async function:

function myFunction (args, outerCallback) {
        function (arg, next) {
            if (someImportantCondition()) {
                return outerCallback(null)
        function (arg, next) {/*...*/}
    ], function done (err) {

Something happened in a waterfall where you want to skip the rest of the execution, so you call an outer callack. However, Async will still wait for that inner next callback to be called, leaving some closure scope allocated.

As of version 3.0, you can call any Async callback with false as the error argument, and the rest of the execution of the Async method will be stopped or ignored.

        function (arg, next) {
            if (someImportantCondition()) {
                return next(false) // ← signal that you called an outer callback

Mutating collections while processing them

If you pass an array to a collection method (such as each, mapLimit, or filterSeries), and then attempt to push, pop, or splice additional items on to the array, this could lead to unexpected or undefined behavior. Async will iterate until the original length of the array is met, and the indexes of items pop()ed or splice()d could already have been processed. Therefore, it is not recommended to modify the array after Async has begun iterating over it. If you do need to push, pop, or splice, use a queue instead.


The source is available for download from GitHub. Alternatively, you can install using npm:

$ npm i async

You can then require() async as normal:

var async = require("async");

Or require individual methods:

var waterfall = require("async/waterfall");
var map = require("async/map");

Development: async.js - 29.6kb Uncompressed

In the Browser

Async should work in any ES2015 environment (Node 6+ and all modern browsers).

If you want to use Async in an older environment, (e.g. Node 4, IE11) you will have to transpile.


<script type="text/javascript" src="async.js"></script>
<script type="text/javascript">, asyncProcess, function(err, results) {


The portable versions of Async, including async.js and async.min.js, are included in the /dist folder. Async can also be found on the jsDelivr CDN.

ES Modules

Async includes a .mjs version that should automatically be used by compatible bundlers such as Webpack or Rollup, anything that uses the module field of the package.json.

We also provide Async as a collection of purely ES2015 modules, in an alternative async-es package on npm.

$ npm install async-es
import waterfall from 'async-es/waterfall';
import async from 'async-es';


There are third-party type definitions for Async.

npm i -D @types/async

It is recommended to target ES2017 or higher in your tsconfig.json, so async functions are preserved:

  "compilerOptions": {
    "target": "es2017"

Other Libraries

  • limiter a package for rate-limiting based on requests per sec/hour.
  • neo-async an altername implementation of Async, focusing on speed.
  • co-async a library inspired by Async for use with co and generator functions.
  • promise-async a version of Async where all the methods are Promisified.
  • 'modern-async' an alternative to Async using only async/await and promises.